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Habitat - Europe    


Europe


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Albania
Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  legally hunted in winter, hunted for fur 
Threats Habitat destruction, Water Pollution, legal hunting 
 

Austria 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  under protection from hunting laws since 1914 
Threats no threats 
 

Belgium 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  under Protection 
Threats All Major rivers polluted, Habitat destruction, 
Recreation on waterways is great 
 

Bulgaria 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Fully protected 
Threats Industrial pollution, Illegal Killing, Habitat 
destruction. 
 

Czech Republic 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Protected 
Threats regulation of small and medium streams, pollution, 
illegal trapping 
 

Denmark 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Fully Protected 
Threats Fish Trapping, Road Traffic, Recreational Activities 
 

Finland 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Protected under "hunting law", so the ban could be 
temporary, and legally killed in fish hatcheries 
Threats Hydroelectric power plants (act as dams), Pollution, 
Fish Traps and Fish hatcheries, Road mortality, 
Increasing demands to resume otter hunting. 
 

France 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Fully protected since 1967 
Threats Destruction and modification of habitat, Water 
Pollution, Severe eutrophication, Death on roads, 
death in fishing nets, death in American mink traps, 
Hydroelectric dams 
 

Germany 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Totally and fully protected in the highest category 
Threats Fish Traps, Road Traffic, Mortality in traps for other animals 

Canalization of rivers, Pollution, Recreational Activities

 

Greece 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Fully Protected 
Threats  Major Habitat destruction, Intensive fish farming with illegal 
persecution of otters, Pollution, Mortality in fish traps and roads, 
Disturbance due to recreation and hunting 
 

Hungary 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Protected, but it is legal to kill them at Fish Farms with permission. 
Threats  Pollution, Habitat destruction, High mortality at fish farms, most 
of which is illegal 
 

Ireland 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Protected, though some licenses for sport-hunting with packs of dogs 
are given in some areas 
Threats  Habitat destruction, Pollution, Disturbance of habitat, Accidental 
deaths and Persecution 
 

Italy 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Protected 
Threats  Habitat destruction, Pollution 
 

Liechtenstein 

Otters  NONE 
Status  UNKNOWN 
Cause 
of death 
UNKNOWN 
 

Luxembourg 

Otters  NONE 
Status  UNKNOWN 
Cause 
of death 
UNKNOWN 
 

Netherlands 

Otters  NONE 
Status  protected (dead since 1988) 
Cause 
of death 
Pollution, PCB, pesticide, Habitat destruction, Disturbance from recreation, Fish Traps, traffic 
 

Norway 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Protected. Licenses may be given to kill otters at fish farms. 
Threats  Pollution, poisonous marine algae, Mortality in fish traps and on roads, Illegal persecution at fish farms 
 

Poland 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Protected 
Threats  Pollution, Poaching, Persecution, Fish Traps 
 

Portugal 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Protected 
Threats  Pollution, Illegal Persecution, Disturbances by Recreational Activities, Oil Spills 
 

Romania 

Otters  No Recent information 
Status 
Threats 
 

Soviet Union 

We apologize but our data is only available by region - need to update for current country structure when the 2000 Otter Action Plan is released
Russia 
Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Trapped under special permission 
Threats  Irrational Killing (mostly illegal), Destruction of habitat 
Estonia 
Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Protected 
Threats  Destruction of ecosystem, water pollution. 
Soviet Far East 
Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Hunting is allowed, but strictly controlled. 
Threats  some river pollution, some illegal hunting, total ice cover, reduced food 
sources, pollution, illegal hunting, accidental traps for minks 
Karelina 
Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  not protected, but the hunting laws are being modified to 
forbid trapping otters. 
Threats  Habitat destruction, human disturbance 
Lithuania 
Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Protected from hunting since 1975 
Threats  Habitat destruction, loss of food due to lack of food, traps set for beavers 
Murmansk Region 
Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  fully protected since 1977 
Threats  Habitat destruction, air pollution, Hydroelectric dams, over-fishing, 
conflict with American mink. 
Tartar A.S.S.R. 
Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Protected 
Threats  Destruction of habitat 
 

Spain 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  Protected 
Threats  Habitat destruction, pollution, marsh drainage, illegal hunting/trapping, 
disturbance by tourism. 
 

Sweden 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  protected 
Threats  contamination with organocholrines 
 

Switzerland 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  protected 
Threats  habitat destruction, water pollution 
 

United Kingdom 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  protected 
Threats  Pollution drowning in fish nets, habitat destruction, drainage of wetlands, 
recreational activities. 
 

Yugoslavia 

Otters  Eurasian Otter 
Status  fully protected (only partially protected in Bosnia) 
Threats  Habitat destruction, Pollution, Road Traffic, Disturbance, Illegal Killing 
 
 

Source: Otters: An Action Plan for their Conservation; IUCN/SSC Otter Specialist Group; published 1990


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